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Good cop, bad cop: Exploring school principals’ emotionally manipulative behaviours

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Educational Management Administration and Leadership, Volume 45, Issue 6, 2017, Pages 944-958

Abstract

Research on school principals’ behaviours that affect teachers’ emotional state is limited. Currently, the focus is primarily on extreme manifestations of mistreatment and emotional abuse; normative daily behaviours, such as emotionally manipulative ones, have yet to be explored. The purpose of the present study is to investigate primary school principals’ manipulative behaviours, i.e., principals’ actions aimed at enlisting others to advance their goals by stimulating emotions. Based on the self-report scale of Austin et al. (2007), we developed a modified other-report scale to explore principals’ emotionally manipulative behaviours with both negative and positive orientations. The scale was used in a cross-sectional field survey, in which teachers rated their principals’ manipulative behaviours. We found support for the prevalence of both types of principals’ emotionally manipulative behaviours and of their effects on teachers’ negative and positive emotions arising from interactions with the principals. We also found that principals who ranked higher in negative and positive emotionally manipulative behaviours self-reported having greater controlling tendencies. The findings and their implications are discussed.

Typology of "tough love" leadership in urban schools facing challenging circumstances

In press
Izhak Berkovich, Yael Grinshtain
Urban Education

Abstract

The myth of “tough love” leadership emerges in cultural narratives as a superior approach to improving students’ educational opportunities in urban schools facing challenging circumstances. This model, however, has not been conceptualized, and consequently, empirical research about it is lacking. We formulated a typology of tough love leadership as a mix of four behaviors that combine “tough” and “loving” approaches, with a focus on crisis management and a positive school vision. The study used the tough love leadership conceptualization to explore different mixes of tough love leadership, manifesting in four urban schools facing challenging circumstances. The study’s implications are discussed.

Typology of trust relationships: Profiles of teachers' trust in principal and their implications

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, Volume 24, Issue 7, 2018, Pages 749-767

Abstract

This exploratory study is based on a multidimensional perspective of trust relationships proposed by Lewicki, McAllister, and Bies (1998) to classify the profiles of teachers’ trust in the principal. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the type and frequency of profiles of teachers’ trust in principal, and the implications of these profiles for teachers’ relational wellbeing and their organisational citizenship behaviours (OCB). Cluster analysis of a field survey data of 654 public primary school teachers in Israel was used to identify the profiles of teachers’ trust in the principal and the prevalence of various profiles. Analyses of variance show differences in teachers’ wellbeing and OCB as a function of trust profile. The findings and their implications are discussed.

Effects of principal-teacher gender similarity on teacher's trust and organizational commitment

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Sex Roles, Volume 78, Issue 7, 2018, Pages 561-572

Abstract

In many Western public primary school systems, the gender composition of the principals is more heterogenic than that of the teachers, but research on the effect of gender on social psychological processes related to school leadership is scarce. The present work aims to address this lacuna by exploring the effects of principal-teacher gender similarity in the Israeli public primary school system, where most teachers are women, on teachers’ trust in their principals and on organizational commitment. Data from 594 female public primary teachers working with male and female principals were analyzed. The results show that when the principal and teacher are of the same gender, both affective and cognitive trust in the principal are higher. Moderation analysis indicated that female teachers’ affective trust in male principals increases with relational duration. A second moderation effect that was found indicated that gender similarity and cognitive trust in principal have a negative interactive effect on teachers’ continued commitment to school, countering the positive effect of gender similarity on commitment. The results and their implications are discussed, and future research is recommended.

Help me if you can: Psychological distance and help-seeking intentions in employee-supervisor relations

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Stress and Health, Volume 34, Issue 3, 2018, Pages 425-434

Abstract

Social support at work is considered useful in treating job-related stress, and supervisors’ emotional support has been found to be the most effective source of support at work. But an understanding of what elements make employees use supervisors as a source of emotional support is lacking. The present qualitative study included in-depth interviews with 24 teachers and 12 principals, and a focus group with 12 school counselors. The findings pointed at two groups of determinants of subordinates’ intentions of asking socio-emotional help from supervisors. The structural-organizational factors included low formalization structure, supportive and open work climate, shared goals, and manager’s professional expertise; the dyadic factors included quality of relationship and demographic similarity. The determinants reflected different dimensions of psychological distance forming a close construal level that played a central part in employees’ viewing the supervisor as an accessible socio-emotional resource. The role of construal fit is discussed.

Feelings, moods, and emotion in schools: Affective perspectives

Book chapter
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
SAGE international handbook of school organization

Abstract

Emotions, moods, and other affective concepts are an integral part of all human and social experiences. Despite so, for most of the 20st century, emotions were considered to be irrational and illegitimate and only in recent decades, researchers started to explore emotional experiences. The first two decades of the 21st century mark a new era in the exploration of emotions is schools, having produced novel insights. In this chapter, we aim to present some of the established and of the emerging theories and concepts in the 21st century that are relevant to understanding emotions with regard to leadership, work, and learning taking place in schools. Specifically, we wish to do so by addressing different images that people use when thinking about organizations. In our opinion, these fundamental metaphors are the ones that shape how we think about emotions in organizations and in schools.

Principals' emotional support and teachers' emotional reframing: The mediating role of principals' supportive communication strategies

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Psychology in the Schools, Volume 55, Issue 7, 2018, Pages 867–879

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to achieve a deeper understanding of emotional support in principal-teacher relations. The study aimed to shed light on the role of principals’ supportive communication strategies in providing emotional support to teachers, and on the proximal affective outcome of such support. The study used quantitative data obtained from 190 school teachers to explore the effect of principals’ emotional support on teachers’ emotional reframing through principals’ supportive communication strategies (empathic listening, and empowering and normalising messages). The analysis indicated an indirect effect of principals’ emotional support on teachers’ emotional reframing through principals’ supportive communication strategies. The results and their implications are discussed.

Micropolitics, senior management teams, and principals' inner circle: A structural exploration

In press
Izhak Berkovich
Leadership and Policy in Schools

Abstract

This study adopts a structural perspective to explore micropolitics in senior management teams, and identify the principals’ inner circle. Based on data from an Israeli random sample of state primary teachers, profiles of trust in principal are identified and used to break down the subgroups of teachers serving in various roles in senior management teams. Odd ratios and two-sample t-tests between percentage analyses revealed that senior management teams are composed from three layers. Two layers form the principals’ inner circle and include the vice-principal as a central political ally, and the more political layer of officials (form heads) chosen as part of a reward or cooptation strategy. The third layer (counselors and subject heads) of senior management teams is less political, and these teachers are less likely to be part of the inner circle. The implications for research and practice are discussed, particularly in regard to idealized discourse on distributed leadership.

DESCP factors: the ‘invisible’ impediments to reforms in education

In press
Izhak Berkovich, Ronit Bogler
Journal of Educational Administration and History

Abstract

Policymakers often overestimate the power of agentic players in the system and their own as the causes for the successes and failures of reforms. These are but a small part of the powers in play. The article sheds light on contextual factors that are underestimated when planning and implementing reforms in education. The study utilises a case study method to explore three failed reforms in public education to identify the influence of DESCP (i.e., demographic, economic, social, cultural and political) factors on reform success. The study provides an in-depth understanding of why factors in the action environment are as important as agentic players when aspiring to improve national education. The analysis highlights the impact of DESCP factors on basic capacities toward successful implementation of educational reforms. The DESCP factors are discussed, their relevance to reform success is explicated, and their impact is exemplified with policy cases.

Ethics in third sector-school partnerships: A conceptual framework

In press
Ori Eyal, Izhak Berkovich
Journal of Educational Administration

Abstract

Purpose – In recent years, third sector-school partnerships have become more common and received increasing research attention. Yet, the ethical aspects of third sector-school partnerships have not been discussed in-depth. As a result, the field lacks a conceptual framework that makes possible in-depth understanding of the ethical characteristics involved in partnerships between public schools and the third sector. The aim of this paper is to fill this lacuna.

Design/methodology/approach – An integrative review of the general literature on stakeholder theory, corporate social responsibility, cross-sector partnerships, and strategic alliances, as well as of empirical studies on partnerships between schools and the third sector, offers insights on ethical conduct in these partnerships and their antecedents.

Findings – Based on the general literature on cross-sector partnerships and the educational literature on third sector-school partnerships, we offer a conceptual model and propositions about ethical conduct in these partnerships and its antecedents.

Originality/value – The innovative conceptual model makes possible a reevaluation of existing knowledge on third sector-school partnerships, and can support direct research of ethical aspects in these partnerships. In addition, the model provides conceptual language for administrators for managing practical ethical dilemmas in these partnerships.

When the going gets tough: Schools in challenging circumstances and the effectiveness of principals' leadership styles

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, Volume 28, Issue 5, 2018, Pages 348-364

Abstract

The principal’s leadership style is one of the most common ways of conceptualizing school leadership behaviors. We lack understanding, however, of how the effectiveness of school leadership styles varies across degrees of challenging circumstances. Data obtained from a quantitative survey of primary school teachers in Israel (N = 570) and from the Ministry of Education database were used to account for principals’ leadership styles and their effectiveness in schools facing more challenging circumstances (N = 15) and in those facing less challenging circumstances (N = 46). Differences were found in the relations between principals’ transactional behaviors on one hand, and the teaching dimension of school culture and principals’ perceived effectiveness on the other, as a function of challenging school circumstances. The study also found a difference in the relations of principals’ transformational behaviors and the safety dimension of school culture, by level of challenging school circumstances. The data also revealed that in schools facing less challenging circumstances, principals’ passive behaviors were related to students’ achievements and principals’ perceived effectiveness, but not in schools facing more challenging circumstances. The findings and their implications are discussed.

Process implementation perspective on neoliberal regulation: A comparative analysis of national curricula and standards-based reforms in the USA and Australia

In press
Izhak Berkovich
Globalisation, Societies and Education

Abstract

This comparative case study adopts a process implementation perspective on neoliberal regulation to explore developments in national curricula and standard-based reforms in the USA and Australia. Date sources include research reports, books, PISA data, and US Schools and Staffing Survey data. The comparison of the dynamic of two countries reveals that whereas policymakers in the USA adopted a transforming regulatory strategy (targeting the ambiguity and conflict levels in local policy) to implement, Australian policymakers adopted a congruence regulatory strategy (ratifying ambiguity and conflict levels). As a result of this dynamic, the education system in the USA displays a relatively tighter structure, which is related to the tighter professional teaching culture. The analysis suggests that the effect of global ideas and policies adopted locally depends on policymakers’ regulatory strategy, and that local system change drastically only when policymakers adopt the neoliberal default preference for active transformative implementation. Hence, a specific implementation dynamic is a key factor in the global neoliberal agenda, and its presence or absence indicates convergence or divergence between countries adopting similar policies.

Understanding OECD representations of teachers and teaching: A visual discourse analysis of covers in OECD documents

In press
Izhak Berkovich, Pascale Benoliel
Globalisation, Societies and Education

Abstract

OECD dominance in the international educational policy discourse in the developed regions of the world, particularly in promoting teaching policy has been long acknowledged. While many works have explored the organization’s verbal discourse, no study has considered exploring the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) visual discourse despite the potential contribution of such an analysis to uncovering the organization’s underlying constructions. To close that gap, we employed a visual discourse analysis on the covers of OECD documents pertaining to teachers and teaching (i.e., TALIS and ISTP). Our goal was to use this analysis to better understand the OECD’s discourses. The analysis found that OECD’s covers drew mainly on two discourses, a conservative discourse on teachers and teaching, and a liberal diversity discourse. However, the latter was entangled with constructions of traditional gender relations and whiteness, both of which serve to maintain a conservative order. Visual representations constitute a significant part of OECD documents and shed new light on the constructions of teachers and teaching used by the organization.

Conceptualisations of empathy in K-12 teaching: A review of empirical research

In press
Izhak Berkovich
Educational Review

Abstract

The discourse on ideal teachers and teaching has recognised the importance of empathy. Despite the popularity of the concept in educational training and practice, research knowledge remains limited and fragmented. The present paper aims to analyse the empirical research on empathy in K-12 teaching. The search for empirical studies has yielded 28 articles, which were grouped according to four conceptualizations: empathy as a trait, empathy as a state, empathy as communication, and empathy as a relationship.

Navigating ambiguity: Early childhood leaders’ sense-making of their identity in a new mid-level role

In press
Smadar Moshel, Izhak Berkovich
Educational Management Administration and Leadership

Abstract

Mid-level roles in education have been widely explored, primarily in schools, but little research has been conducted during the systemic reform that involves creating a mid-level role between end units and the system. The present study explores the sense-making of Early Childhood Leaders (ECLs) at the initial stage of their new role as mid-level managers. The new role was established as a result of a national administrative reform that, among others, made the systemic hierarchy more vertical by establishing a new mid-level layer between superintendents and early childhood teachers. This qualitative research included semi-structured interviews with 47 mid-level preschool managers. The study sought to uncover their views of the main challenges associated with assuming a new mid-level managerial role, and their coping styles in this role. The analysis revealed that the new mid-level management role raises three challenges concerning the ambiguity of identity: power base, voice and interpersonal loyalty. ECLs cope with these challenges by assuming different types of leader identities, those of the representative, the companion, and the mediator. The implications of the findings for the limited knowledge on ECLs and for the introduction of the new mid-level roles are discussed.

Ethics education in leadership development: Adopting multiple ethical paradigms

In press
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Educational Management Administration and Leadership

Abstract

Attitude development and identity formation in educational leadership are the goals of non-traditional, and in the 21st century also of neo-traditional, development initiatives. Ethics education emerges as one of the linchpins in neo-traditional and non-traditional development initiatives. Yet, despite considerable interest in ethics education in educational leadership development, ethics education has not been examined systematically, and empirical research on its effects is scarce. The present paper aims to address this lacuna by exploring the effects of ethics education based on extended multiple ethical paradigms in the context of educational leadership programme. Moreover, the study follows a systematic longitudinal design, based on pre- and post-course measurements that used the Ethical Perspectives Instrument (EPI) in six Israeli cohorts of educational administration graduate students (N=73). The findings indicate that ethics education has a limited effect on the student body as a whole, but when students were separated into those who did and did not change their dominant ethics, differences emerged. The results suggest that school leadership development focusing on attitude development and identity formation in general and on ethics education in particular lead to different outcomes.

The effects of principals’ communication practices on teachers' emotional distress

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Educational Management Administration and Leadership, Volume 46, Issue 4, 2018, Pages 642-658

Abstract

Educational leadership plays a significant role in school success, which it is said to achieve through its effects on teachers’ emotions, attitudes, and behaviours. However, the knowledge of how school leaders influence teachers’ emotions is greatly limited. Most existing evidence focuses on general explanations that are not the result of controlled research designs, which is why we lack solid operative knowledge on principals’ emotional support of teachers in emotional distress. The present study seeks to address this lacuna. Our approach focuses on interpersonal communication aimed at expanding the operative knowledge about emotionally supportive communication in principal-teacher relations. The study is based on the experimental vignette method, which makes it possible to infer causality. The data were collected using a sample of 113 primary school teachers. The study found that principals’ empathic listening is associated with greater attributed emotional reframing (i.e., positive emotional change), irrespective of the message that principals communicate; however it is only the presence of reframing message, whether empowering or normalising, that influences the actual reframing of negative affect.

Marketing teacher quality: Critical discourse analysis of OECD documents on effective teaching and TALIS

In press
Izhak Berkovich, Pascale Benoliel
Critical Studies in Education

Abstract

This study uses critical discourse analysis (CDA) to examine Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) texts on teacher quality and the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) framework. Specifically, it explores the forewords of documents written by OECD leaders, which we believe are charged with meanings related to the Global Education Reform Movement (GERM) discourse. We suggest that CDA of the texts sheds light on the manner in which OECD leaders attempt to gain normative control in the teacher quality discourse. Based on Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework for studying discourse, our analysis shows that the OECD (a) uses a discourse of fear to market teacher quality in light of global changes, implicitly framing teachers as “bad teachers;” (b) advocates reliance on the organization as a protector; and (c) promises a remedy by regulating teachers in the name of effectiveness and the knowledge economy. The study offers a nuanced insight into OECD efforts to promote normative control in the teacher quality discourse, using three dimensions of discourse (i.e., the textual micro linguistic dimension, the meso interdiscursive dimension, and the macro sociocultural dimension) that help gain ideational powers.

Policymakers' regulatory mindset, the regulatory governance body of the system, and the regulated soul of educators

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Comparative Education Review, Volume 62, Issue 2, 2018, Pages 178-198

Abstract

The article aims to explain how regulation in education operates in the neoliberal age. The paper discusses two possible regulatory implementation strategies: congruent and transforming. Congruence regulation strategy adopts a regulation mechanism set according to the array of circumstances, as determined by the nature of the goals and by conflict level in a given context; transforming regulation strategy aims to reshape the array by defining the existing policy circumstances. I argue that neoliberal policymakers favor transforming regulation as a leading strategy to implement policies that result in tightening the regulatory governance of the education system and of professional culture in education.

Qualitative research in education- A reader

Open Uni book [Hebrew]
Yael Grinshtain, Ina Blau, Izhak Berkovich (Eds.)
The Open University of Israel

Qualitative research in education- Study guide

Open Uni book [Hebrew]
Yael Grinshtain, Ina Blau, Izhak Berkovich
The Open University of Israel

Educational policy, processes and trends in the 21st century

Open Uni book [Hebrew]
Izhak Berkovich
The Open University of Israel

Using Facebook differently in two education policy protests

Journal paper
Amit Avigur-Eshel, Izhak Berkovich
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, Volume 11, Issue 4, 2017, Pages 596-611

Abstract

Purpose
Scholars have identified various uses of Facebook by activists and social movements in political activism and beyond. They overlooked, however, the possibility that social movements may take advantage of certain capabilities provided by social media platforms, while neglecting others, thereby creating differences in patterns of use between movements. This article aims to investigate these differences and to assess the role of the lived experience of activists and supporters in shaping them.

Design/methodology/approach
The study compared two protests in Israel with respect to (a) activists’ use of social media, (b) the class profile of participants, and (c) the leadership’s demands and their resonance among various social groups. Each case was analyzed by combining thematic and quantitative analysis of online data from Facebook pages and of offline data from various sources.

Findings
The two protests exhibited distinctively different patterns of use of the capabilities provided by Facebook. These differences are associated with the lived experience of protest participants and of the individuals the movement leadership sought to mobilize.

Originality/value
The study is the first to show that successful public policy protests can exhibit distinctive use patterns of social media for political activism. It also identifies lived experience as an important factor in shaping these patterns.

A cross-national examination of the effect of the Schwartz cultural dimensions on PISA performance assessments

Journal paper
Pascale Benoliel, Izhak Berkovich
Social Indicators Research, Volume 139, Issue 2, 2018, Pages 825-845

Abstract

In recent years, PISA assessments have become more frequent, and transnational borrowing and policy adaptation have steadily increased, with implications on national education reform policies. The growing impact of globalization in education policy seems to have reinforced the underlying legitimacy of an educational world that lacks cultural diversity. This study seeks to highlight cultural dimensions as significant indicators of disparities in educational performance across countries in international tests. Combining data from the World Values Survey with the PISA scores database, we examined how the Schwartz cultural dimensions relate to student PISA achievement at the national level. Results of regression analysis indicate that when controlling for GDP per capita, Conservatism (i.e., tradition, conformity, and security) remains the best predictor of PISA test results in the three core disciplines. Cultural dimensions in general, and Conservatism in particular, play a significant role in explaining academic achievements per country. Paradoxically, while globalization, in some instances, has led to positive educational policies and multicultural values that challenge Conservatism and Traditionalism, Conservatism may ultimately serve to build the group identity, social cohesion, and national solidarity necessary in this dynamic global era. This study emphasizes the need for comparative exploration that takes into account the influence of cultural dimensions at the national level. This is something that we hope will assist educational administrators to make their educational systems both more effective and more socially responsive.

Exploring narratives of non-faculty professionals in neoliberal higher education: A cultural appropriation perspective on librarians

In press
Izhak Berkovich, Varda Wasserman
Studies in Higher Education

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to explore how the rise of the new public management (NPM) culture in higher education affected librarians. Librarians are a central part of the traditional intellectual model of academia, whose professional ethos is challenged and threatened by the new market-oriented culture. Using a qualitative methodology based on semi-structured interviews with managers and professional staff of academic libraries at a public university, the present study provides insights into the perceptions of non-faculty professionals on the infiltration of NPM into higher education. Our findings reflect a cultural appropriation of integration taking place under the dominant NPM, resulting in a hybrid traditional-NPM culture. Theoretical and practical implications of the effect of NPM on professional staff of academia are offered.

 

Social justice leadership in education, activism and social change: Conceptual framework and discussion in the Israeli context

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Studies in Educational Administration and Organization, Volume 35, Pages 191-222

Abstract

This article discusses social justice leadership in education, aiming to contribute to the Israeli discourse on this issue. The article resorts to international literature to point out the gap between the conceptualizations of social injustices and desired social changes, which are described as linked with multiple social systems on one hand, and with social justice leadership that operates only within schools on the other. The purpose of the article is to extend the conceptualization of social justice leadership in education and associate it with the concepts of activism and social change. The article embraces a socio-ecological perspective and reviews works on social justice leadership in education, activism, and social change in order to present the idea that in the presence of existing barriers to social justice, educational leaders should serve as activists in schools, communities, and in the policy arena. The article offers a macro framework focusing on individual leaders in the field, and emphasizes the need to maintain coherence between intentions, actions, and outcomes in order to promote effectively social justice in a socio-ecological system. The article also discusses the possible tensions that can emerge in a heterogeneous, multicultural, and sectoral society such as the Israeli one as a result of trying to translate abstract ideas of social justice into concrete actions and suggests a cooperative and pragmatic approach as a way to deal with this complexity.

Publication in Hebrew

Beyond qualitative/quantitative structuralism: The positivist qualitative research and the paradigmatic disclaimer

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Quality and Quantity, Volume 52, Issue 5, 2018, Pages 2063-2077

Abstract

Scholarly discourse concerning the distinction between qualitative and quantitative approach often takes on a binary character. This structuralism undermines the legitimacy of positivist qualitative research, a unique method frequently used in social science research. In the present essay, the author argues that positivist qualitative research should be recognized as a unique form of qualitative research. The essay focuses on three issues: (a) the paradigmatic roots of positivist qualitative research, (b) the components of positivist qualitative research as an empirical research approach, including a typology for mapping various manifestations of partially and fully positivist qualitative research, and (c) incorporating a paradigmatic disclaimer section in articles to improve the quality of qualitative research, positivist and non-positivist alike. Recognizing positivist qualitative research as a distinct and legitimate type can improve qualitative studies in social science.

Educational reform hyperwaves: Reconceptualizing Cuban's theories of change

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Journal of Educational Change, Volume 18, Issue 4, 2017, Pages 413-438

Abstract

The present work builds on Larry Cuban’s (1990) seminal work on reform waves. The research explores reform waves in Israeli educational policies since 2000s. The historical case study analysis focuses on conservative and liberal-progressive reforms in education, and reveals that these reforms took place as reoccurring alternating cycles, connected with political and institutional pressures that promote reform waves. The paper argues, however, that it is necessary to further develop Cuban’s theory because it does not provide an explanation for the temporal frequency of reform waves. The paper suggests betwixt and between situations as factors pushing reform waves into hyperdrive. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications of reform hyperwaves.

Methodological review of studies on educational leaders and emotions (1992-2012): Insights into the meaning of an emerging research field in educational administration

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Journal of Educational Administration, Volume 55, Issue 5, 2017, Pages 469-491

Abstract

Purpose
This a methodological review of the literature on educational leaders and emotions that includes 49 empirical studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1992-2012.

Design/methodology/approach
The work systematically analyzes descriptive information, methods, and designs in these studies, and their development over time.

Findings
The review suggests that scholarly interest in educational leaders and emotions has increased over time, and identifies methodological patterns in this body of research. The results are compared with methodological data from other syntheses in the disciplines of educational administration (EA) and organizational behavior (OB) for the purpose of using the findings to produce broader insights into the meaning of an emerging research field in EA.

Originality/value
The findings of the methodological review are interpreted from two conceptual perspectives: functionalist and critical. Together, they offer a holistic portrayal of the meaning of producing scientific knowledge in an emerging research field in EA.

Emotional reframing as a mediator of the relationships between transformational school leadership and teachers' motivation and commitment

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Journal of Educational Administration, Volume 55, Issue 5, 2017, Pages 450-468

Abstract

Purpose
Empirical evidence links transformational school leadership to teachers’ autonomous motivation and affective organizational commitment. Little empirical research, however, has focused on the emotional mechanisms behind these relations. Following the argument in the literature that transformational leadership can transform followers’ emotions, we examine whether teacher’s experience of emotional reframing by principal mediates the relationships between transformational school leadership and these work-related outcomes (i.e., teachers’ motivation and commitment).

Design/methodology/approach
Questionnaires were used to collect information from 639 primary school teachers nested in 69 randomly sampled schools. The data were analyzed using multilevel path analysis software.

Findings
The results indicated that the effect of transformational school leadership behaviors on teachers’ autonomous motivation was fully mediated by emotional reframing, and that the effect of transformational school leadership on affective organizational commitment was partially mediated by it. We further found an indirect relationship of transformational school leadership with affective organizational commitment through emotional reframing and autonomous motivation.

Originality/value
The present study makes a unique contribution to the literature by confirming that teachers’ sense of emotional reframing is a key affective mechanism by which school leaders influence teachers’ motivation and commitment.

Reflections on leadership preparation programs and social justice: Are the power and the responsibility of the faculty all in the design?

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Journal of Educational Administration, Volume 55, Issue 3, 2017, Pages 261-279

Abstract

Purpose
Fundamental aspects of educational leadership preparation programs regarding social justice are embodied in program design elements, yet the scholarly community did not adequately address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach
The essay suggests that organizational theories dealing with person-environment fit can shed light on the models, possibilities, and limitations of various preparation programs.

Findings
The essay proposes a meta-conceptual framework that builds on Schneider’s attraction-selection-attrition theory and on the socialization literature to classify leadership preparation programs by design. In addition, the paper reflects on the implications of program design in relation to the power and the responsibility of the faculty.

Originality/value
The essay argues that design decisions made by the faculty a priori enable and constrain its power and responsibility. The conclusion is that design decisions should be made by faculty with awareness of these issues.

Will it sink or will it float: Putting three common conceptions about principals' transformational leadership to the test

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Educational Management Administration and Leadership, Volume 46, Issue 6, 2018, Pages 888–907

Abstract

In discussions about transformational leadership theory, three conceptions frequently emerge: (a) principals’ transformational leadership behaviours are more prevalent in national contexts than are restructuring-oriented; (b) principals’ transformational behaviours are more effective than transactional behaviours; and (c) principals are either transformational or transactional. These conceptions are repeatedly addressed but seldom explored in an empirical manner. Accepting conceptions as given might result in flattening scholarly discourse and depriving practice of research knowledge. The present paper aims to investigate these conceptions based on data derived from published works and from the author’s database. The results of the investigation suggest that conceptions about principals’ transformational leadership in education are unsupported by empirical exploration. Educational leadership research may be improved by periodically subjecting conceptions to empirical test and incorporating in future works only those that show empirical support. Such exploration is necessary to maintain relevance in an applied research field such as education.

The mediating role of principals’ transformational leadership behaviors in promoting teachers’ emotional wellness at work: A study in Israeli primary schools

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Educational Management Administration and Leadership, Volume 45, Issue 2, 2017, Pages 316-335

Abstract

The present study aims to examine whether principals’ emotional intelligence (specifically, their ability to recognize emotions in others) makes them more effective transformational leaders, measured by the reframing of teachers’ emotions. The study uses multisource data from principals and their teachers in 69 randomly sampled primary schools. Principals undertook a performance task to allow assessment of their emotion recognition ability; half the teachers’ sampled (N = 319) reported on principals’ leadership behaviors and the other half (N = 320) on teachers’ subjective perceptions of principals as promoting teachers’ reframing of negative emotions into more positive ones. Data were analyzed through multilevel structural equation modeling. Findings indicated a cross-level relationship between principals’ transformational leadership behaviors and teachers’ emotional reframing, as well as a relationship between principals’ emotion recognition ability and their transformational behaviors. Furthermore, the study revealed that principals’ emotion recognition ability has an indirect effect on teachers’ emotional reframing through principals’ transformational leadership behaviors. The results provide empirical support for the claim that transformational leadership promotes emotional transformation. The theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed.

The educational aims of the OECD in its TALIS insight and lesson reports: Exploring societal orientations

In press
Izhak Berkovich, Pascale Benoliel
Critical Studies in Education

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the societal orientations (individualist vs. collectivist) of educational aims, in constructions of teacher professionalism framed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) insight and lesson reports. The critical discourse analysis of OECD TALIS documents suggests that the OECD discourse on teacher professionalism attested to a dual orientation: individualist and anti-collectivist. Our results contribute to the theoretical understanding of the educational aims of the OECD, which lead the global discourse in education, and of the cultural orientation that is part of its conceptualization of new professional teaching. The article discusses the implications of its findings.

Educational policy- A reader

Open Uni book [Hebrew]
Izhak Berkovich (Ed.)
The Open University of Israel

Educational policy- Study guide

Open Uni book [Hebrew]
Izhak Berkovich
The Open University of Israel

Who “likes” public education: Social media activism, middle-class parents, and education policy in Israel

Journal paper
Amit Avigur-Eshel, Izhak Berkovich
British Journal of Sociology of Education, Volume 39, Issue 6, 2018, Pages 844-859

Abstract

The present paper focuses on middle-class parent activism in the Israeli policymaking arena. In recent decades, public education governance in Israel has been gradually moving from a quasi-social democratic mode to a neoliberal one. Two e-mobilizations of middle-class parents are studied: the “Strollers Protest” of 2011 and the “Sardines Protest” of 2014. First, we explore how these two protests used social media to promote changes in education policies. Next, we argue that social media can be used to promote both anti- and pro-neoliberal policies in public education. We conclude by discussing the possible implications of social media on parent activism in the policy arena.

Pedagogy out of order: Relinking critical teaching with the dialogical aspect of transformative learning

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Teachers College Record, February 15, 2016

Abstract

This commentary is a criticism of the dominating technical approach to critical teaching, which the author views as inherently linked with promoting what Jack Mezirow called transformative learning. The author suggests that both cognitive and dialogical orientations are necessary to promote authentic transformation through critical teaching. The author discusses the problems involved in over-focus on the technical cognitive aspect in critical teaching, and welcomes a dialogical focus in critical teaching as a way to promote students’ authentic transformative learning.

School leaders and transformational leadership theory: Time to part ways?

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Journal of Educational Administration, Volume 54, Issue 5, Pages 609-622

Abstract

Purpose

After decades in which transformational leadership theory has prevailed as the dominant paradigm in leadership scholarship, critical voices have started raising serious concerns about its falsifiability, suggesting that transformational leadership theory should be abandoned. Although transformational leadership is key to conceptualizing ideal school leadership, the discourse did not find its way into the education field. The present work aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The essay combines a review of the critique of the falsifiability of the transformational leadership theory with a discussion of the utility and fit of the theory.

Findings

On the 25th anniversary of transformational leadership theory, I suggest to the educational administration community not to abandon transformational leadership, but to address its shortcomings and look toward future challenges as the community contemplates the promises the theory holds for the field.

Originality/value

The essay examines the current status of the transformational leadership theory in the field of educational administration and offers an interpretative critique.

There is no 'T' in school improvement: The missing team perspective

Journal paper
Pascale Benoliel, Izhak Berkovich
International Journal of Educational Management, Volume 31, Issue 7, 2017, Pages 922-929

Abstract

Purpose
The concept of teams tend to be marginalized in the scholarly discussion of school improvement. The present paper argues that teams play a crucial role in promoting an holistic integration of school operation necessary to support school change. Specifically, the paper outlines the dynamic of effective teams at times of school improvement.

Design/methodology/approach
The article presents the concept of teams, elaborates on their central function as a ‘coupling mechanism’, and describes the reciprocal relations between teams and school change.

Findings
The article emphasizes the reciprocal effects of teams and change, suggesting that teams can serve as key change agents in school restructuring processes, specifically when balancing between ‘coping’ and ‘pushing’ forces. Based on the model, effective team leadership and effective school leadership at times of school change are introduced. Practical implications are discussed for school leaders.

Originality/value
The integration of the concept of teams into the school improvement discourse might assist school leaders to develop processes and procedures that will enable both school teams and schools to react more effectively in times of change and restructuring.

The corrupted industry and the “wagon-wheel effect”: A cross-country exploration of the effect of government corruption on public service effectiveness

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Administration and Society, Volume 48, Issue 5, 2016, Pages 559–579

Abstract

The present study addresses a topic neglected by the public administration literature: government corruption and its effects on public service systems. Specifically, the study focuses on the institutionalized form of government corruption and offers a framework to explain how corrupt industry operates. The results indicate that in countries with a high level of corruption, a higher ratio of public expenditure on education is associated with less effective educational outcomes, supporting the “wagon-wheel effect” (i.e., policy aimed to promote public service quality leads to its deterioration). The implications of the results for the administration of public service systems are discussed.

Educational leaders and emotions: An international review of empirical evidence 1992-2012

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Review of Educational Research, Volume 58, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 129-167

Abstract

The aim of the present article is to review the international evidence about emotional aspects related to educational leaders. The review focuses on empirical studies published in peer-refereed educational journals between 1992 and 2012. First, we address the importance of researching emotions for understanding educational leaders. Next, we present the method used in the production of this narrative review. The bulk of the article presents empirical evidence from 49 studies organized along themes. Three central themes have emerged in the review: (a) the factors influencing the leaders’ emotions, (b) leaders’ behaviors and their effects on followers’ emotions, and (c) leaders’ emotional abilities. Within each theme, we present subthemes that include summaries of the relevant key findings. The article concludes with several methodological recommendations and an outline of possible directions for future research.

A socio-ecological framework of social justice leadership in education

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Journal of Educational Administration, Volume 52, Issue 3, 2014, Pages 282-309

Abstract

Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to present the gap between conceptualizations of social injustices and the desired social transformation that addresses multiple social subsystems and levels on one hand, and social justice leadership that addresses intra-school efforts on the other. The paper aims to expand the conceptualization of social justice leadership and tie it together with concepts of activism and social change.

Design/methodology/approach
The paper adopts a socio-ecological perspective. It reviews works about social justice leadership in education, activism, and social change to present the notion that in light of existing social justice barriers educational leaders should serve as activists in schools and in the community and policy areas.

Findings
The paper presents a macro framework, focussing on individual leaders in the field and on the consolidation of intentions, actions, and outcomes in a manner necessary for using social justice as an effective socio-political agenda in a socio-ecological system.

Originality/value
The paper presents a conceptual framework which can enable practitioners and researchers to better understand social justice efforts.

Neo-liberal governance and the ‘new professionalism’ of Israeli principals

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Comparative Education Review, Volume 58, Issue 3, 2014, Pages 428-456

Abstract

The Israeli Ministry of Education has recently initiated a program of reform in the training of public school principals that aims to expand state licensing regulations for educational leaders. This article suggests that the principals’ training and licensing (PTL) reform should be linked to the attempt by Israeli policy makers to institutionalize evaluative neoliberal governance in the Israeli education system. To support this suggestion, the article traces the historical development of PTL policies in Israel to set the new centralized reform in its neoliberal context, and links it to the rise of “new professionalism” in Israeli educational administration. The innovative framework presented here links educational governance and PTL policies together to facilitate a systematic analysis of licensing regulation policies and reforms in other national contexts.

Between person and person: Dialogical pedagogy in authentic leadership development

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Academy of Management Learning and Education, Volume 13, Issue 2, 2014, Pages 245-264

Abstract

This paper is a critique of the dominant functionalist discourse in authentic leadership theory, which shapes the manner in which we perceive authentic leadership development. As an alternative, I offer adopting dialogical philosophy as a theoretical lens for conceptualizing authentic leadership development. Drawing on various dialogical communication works, I explore how dialogical pedagogy can be used to improve authentic leadership development. I suggest eight components of dialogical pedagogy that can be adopted in authentic leadership development: self-exposure, open-mindedness, empathy, care, respect, critical thinking, contact, and mutuality. The advantages, limitations, and implications of dialogical pedagogy for authentic leadership development are then discussed.

A multidimensional approach in international comparative policy analysis based on demographic projections

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Population Research and Policy Review, Volume 32, Issue 6, 2013, Pages 943-968

Abstract

The present study adopts a multidimensional approach to classifying countries in international comparative policy analyses. The article builds a data-based typology founded on future demographic projections of the United Nations. Latent class analysis is used to identify various demographic profiles of countries based on fertility rates, net migration rates, and dependency ratios. There is great value in identifying future changes in population composition, as it enables governments to set policy agenda, prioritize needs, and prepare better for what lies ahead. The paper demonstrates the value of such typology to social services, by analyzing the demographic profiles and estimating their implications for future challenges in educational provision. The contributions of the paper to international comparative policy analysis are discussed.

A revised regularization of the relations between the local authorities and the Ministry of Education

Working paper [Hebrew]
Izhak Berkovich
The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute

Building trust in the education system: Perceptions of teachers and principals

Working paper [Hebrew]
Ido Avgar, Izhak Berkovich, Yael Shalev-Vigiser
The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute

A different perspective on the Israeli education system: Evaluating the system with complementary criteria to academic achievements

Working paper [Hebrew]
Nachum Blass, Ido Avgar, Izhak Berkovich

Third sector involvement in public education: The Israeli case

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich, Vincent J. Foldes
Journal of Educational Administration, Volume 50, Issue 2, 2012, Pages 173-187

Abstract

Purpose
The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision‐making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision.

Design/methodology/approach
A collective case study approach was used to investigate non‐governmental organization (NGO) procedures for the deployment of the educational services they provide. The study was based on semi‐structured interviews with key personnel and on documents from four NGOs operating in the Israeli public education system.

Findings
The article illustrates the extent of third sector organizations’ involvement in the Israeli public educational system, in most cases operated with significant governmental funding. The findings reveal two main factors in the NGOs’ decision‐making process that affect their operational deployment: the type of financing model they adopted and the nature of their relationship with the Ministry of Education.

Practical implications
The paper’s findings have led to several policy recommendations. It recommends that NGOs be more aware of their financing model and more critical in its appraisal. It also recommends that the state take into account the vision and financing model of NGOs and its own strategic responsibility for reaching nationwide social goals when selecting partners.

Originality/value
The study examines the increasing involvement of NGOs in state public education. As trends of privatization and democratization continue, the number of NGOs operating in the public education system continues to rise, and their importance continues to increase.

Making the right choice: Ethical judgments among educational leaders

Journal paper
Ori Eyal, Izhak Berkovich, Talya Schwartz
Journal of Educational Administration, Volume 49, Issue 4, 2011, Pages 396-413

Abstract

Purpose
Scholars have adopted a multiple ethical paradigms approach in an attempt to better understand the bases upon which everyday ethical dilemmas are resolved by educational leaders. The aim of this study is to examine the ethical considerations in ethical judgments of aspiring principals.

Design/methodology/approach
To examine the ethical considerations involved in school leadership decision making, a specially designed ethical perspective instrument was developed that draws on the multiple ethical paradigms. This exploratory instrument was pre‐tested for validity and reliability among school principals and students of educational administration. The research sample consisted of 52 participants in principal training programs in Israel.

Findings
Negative correlations were found between choices reflecting values of fairness and those reflecting utilitarianism and care. In addition, negative correlations were found between choices reflecting values of community and those reflecting care, critique, and profession. Critique turned out to be the value most widely adopted by educational leaders to solve ethical dilemmas, followed by care and profession.

Originality/value
The common notion in the literature is that the various ethics complement one another. There is, however, little empirical work on ethical judgments of educational practitioners. The importance of this exploratory research is twofold: first, it examines the extent to which multiple ethical considerations can be taken into account simultaneously; and second, it identifies the prevailing values that come into play most often.

No we won’t! Teachers’ resistance to educational reform

Journal paper
Izhak Berkovich
Journal of Educational Administration, Volume 49, Issue 5, 2011, Pages 563-578

Abstract

Purpose
Teachers’ resistance to educational reform has been explored, with special attention given to the reasons driving opposition and the resistance practices employed inside school walls. These studies have not, however, examined the agenda setting strategy employed by teachers opposing new policy on the national level, nor has any extensive study focused on the messages or rhetoric characterizing their opposition. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the rhetoric and images used in web‐based campaigns by teachers to secure public support for their resistance to the “New Horizon” reform in Israel 2007 teachers’ strike.

Design/methodology/approach
This study employs a descriptive case study methodology to illustrate the bottom‐up political strategy employed by teachers seeking public support for their opposition to reform. Content analysis of entries and manifestos posted on prominent teachers’ weblogs and partisan school web sites during Israel’s 64‐day teachers’ strike in 2007 was conducted. Texts discussing the reform and its leaders, as well as educational and policy issues were analyzed inductively, divided according to meaning units, and then grouped together into categories.

Findings
Data indicate that the media, and specifically the internet, are perceived as major arena for garnering legitimacy and support. Teachers’ rhetoric of resistance to reform was found to be characterized by: the use of emotional and rational appeals, the attempt to present teachers as “champions of education”, the use of dramatic labeling addressed at reformist leaders, and symbolic images of political parties.

Originality/value
The paper presents a conceptual model of political processes in the education system. The findings show the agenda setting strategy as reflected in teachers’ cross‐level bottom‐up attempts to influence politics. Furthermore, teachers’ rhetoric in resisting educational reform shows great similarity to the rhetoric of political campaigns. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.

National challenges, educational reforms, and their influence on school management: The Israeli case

Journal paper
Ori Eyal, Izhak Berkovich
Educational Planning, Volume 19, Issue 4, 2011, Pages 44-63

Abstract

Considering Cohen, March and Olsen’s (1972) “garbage can model,” this paper seeks to examine how educational reforms, adopted by Israel from pre-statehood to contemporarily times, have impacted the role of principals and whether these reforms have prepared them to address challenges of the system. Using second-order historical sources, the paper employs a socio-historical based data analysis to examine the complex relationship between policies, structures, and values and their impact on the role of the principal. For each historical period in the Israeli education system the paper discusses the immediate societal challenges, the origins of the adopted reforms, and the influence of these reforms on the role of the school principal and his/her ability to respond to the challenges placed before him/her. This analysis demonstrates how imported policies and international trends, that are loosely connected to local social, cultural, political and educational contexts and the first fundamental layer of centralized reform adopted in Israel, have impact policy-making and limited the principal’s response to contemporary socioeducational challenges. It is consequently argued that because the system is consistently delayed in adopting educational reform, principals have been forced to respond to the challenges of yesterday instead of focusing on future, and even current challenges. Few studies have employed both the “garbage can model” and a sociohistorical perspective for studying policy-making in education and its influence on the evolution of the role of the principal. The present novel study has the potential to fill this gap in our knowledge by analyzing long-term processes and turning points that have simultaneously shaped the principals’ ability to face societal challenges.

Third sector involvement in the Israeli school system

Working paper [Hebrew]
Varda Shiffer, Izhak Berkovich, Shahar Bar-Yehuda, Granit Almog-Bareket
The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute

The state and teachers’ organizations

Working paper [Hebrew]
Izhak Berkovich, Nelly Markman
The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute

Teacher evaluation policy

Working paper [Hebrew]
Izhak Berkovich, Tzachi Choen, Talya Schwartz, Norit Herman
The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute

Alternative teacher education in Israel

Working paper [Hebrew]
Izhak Berkovich, Yael Shalev-Vigiser
The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute

From personal ethos to organizational vision: Narratives of visionary educational leaders

Journal paper
Raya Yoeli, Izhak Berkovich
Journal of Educational Administration, Volume 48, Issue 4, 2010, Pages 451-467

Abstract

Purpose
Successful visionary educational leaders promote a shared vision with great commitment and manage to connect other organizational members to it. In spite of this, the source of their personal commitment to the organizational vision has not yet been the subject of extended study. The purpose of this paper is to correct this by investigating leaders’ personal ethos; the personal experiences and values which form their motives and personality. This paper furthermore considers the influence of personal ethos on the content of the vision promoted in educational organizations. Finally, it explores the link between leaders’ personal vision and the organizational vision they promote.

Design/methodology/approach
Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with visionary educational leaders. These interviews were narrative in nature and aimed to explore the development process and the interrelation of personal and organizational vision in an educational framework.

Findings
Data indicate that visionary educational leaders do not separate their personal vision from their organizational vision. Furthermore, the educational leaders interviewed told of formative experiences which affected their worldview and shaped their personal ethos. Personal ethos proved to be a key element in formulating the leaders’ personal and organization vision. Four prominent factors emerged as central to the personal ethos of educational leaders: identity, culture and values, professional experience, and family.

Originality/value
The findings suggest that educational leaders should engage in a process of self‐reflection in order to form a significant personal vision to which they can fully commit. Furthermore, the insights of leaders about what is important to them can enable an open dialogue with other organizational members and the development of a shared vision.